“Savage” heads

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Enclosed in their display cases, unperturbed behind the glass, the heads attract yet another group of visitors.
They are watched, scrutinized, inspected in every smallest detail by a multitude of wide-open eyes. The children are in the front row, as usual, their noses pressed against the glass, their small faces suspended between a grimace of disgust and an excited, amazed look.
As for the adults, their wonder is somehow tarnished by judgment or, better, prejudice. “You have to understad that for these indigenous people it was a sacred practice”, sentences a nice gentleman, eager to prove his broad cultural views. “Still, it’s a horrible thing”, replies his wife, a little disgusted.
The scene repeats itself each and every day, for the heads sitting under the glass.
And few of the visitors understand they’re not actually looking at real objects from an ancient, distant culture. They are admiring a fantasy, the idea of that culture that Westerners have created and built.

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The two basic kinds of heads presented in anthropological sections of museums all around the world are tsantsas and mokomokai.

The most famous tsantsas are the ones hailing from South America and created by the Jivaro peoples; among these tribes, the most prolific in fabricating such trophies were undoubtedly the Shuar and the Achuar, who lived between Ecuador and Peru.

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The Shuar technique for shrinking heads was complex: an incision was made from the nape to the top of the head; once completely skinned, after paying specific attention as to keep all the hair intact, the skull was discarded. The facial skin was then boiled. Any trace of soft tissue had to be eliminated by rolling red-hot pebbles inside the skin, which was then further scraped with hot sand, roasted on flat stones, and so on. It was a delicate and meticulous procedure, until eventually the head was reduced to one fourth of the original size.

What was the purpose of such dedication?
The tsantsas were part of solemn celebrations which lasted several years, and were meant to capture the extraordinary power of the victim’s soul. They were not actually war trophies, in spite of what you can sometimes read, because the Shuar and Achuar usually lived quite peacefully: the occasional raids organized by the various tribes to hunt for tsantsas were a form of socially accepted violence, as there was no purpose in it other than obtaining these very powerful objects.
Great feasts welcomed the return of the headhunters, and these celebrations were the most important in the whole year. The intrinsic power the tsantsas was transferred to the women, assuring wealth and plenty of food to the families. After seven years of rituals, the shrunken heads lost their force. For the Shuar, at this point, the tsantsas had no pratical value: some kept the heads as a keepsake, but others got rid of them without giving it a second thought. The focus was not the material object in itself, but its spiritual power.

That was not at all the case with Western merchants. To them, a shrunken head perfectly summarized the idea of a “savage culture”. These indigenous people, in the collective imaginary of the Nineteenth Century, were still depicted as brutal and animal-like: there was a will to think them as “stuck in time”, as if they had been lingering in a prehistoric underdeveloped stage, without ever undergoing evolutions or social transformations.
Therefore, what object could be a clearer symbol of these tribes’ barbarity than a macabre and grotesque souvenir like tsantsas?

If at the beginning of European settlements, in the Andes region and the Amazon River basin, the colonists had traded various tipes of goods with the indigenous people, as time went by they became ever more autonomous. As they did not need the pig or deer meat any more, which until then the Shuar had bartered with clothes, knives and guns, the settlers began to request only two things in exchange for the precious firearms: the indios’ labor force, and their infamous shrunken heads.
Soon enough, the only way a Shuar could get hold of a rifle was to sell a head.

That’s when the situation got worse, along with the exponential growth of Western fascination with tsantsas. The shrunken heads became a must-have curiosity for collectors and museums alike. The need for arms pushed the Shuar people to hunt heads for purposes which were not ritual any more, but rather exclusively commercial, in an attempt to satisfy the European request. A tsantsa for a gun, was the usual bargain: that gun would then be used to hunt more heads, exchanged for new arms… the vicious cycle ended up in a massacre, carried out to comply with foreigners’ tastes in exoticism.
As Frances Larson writes, “when visitors come to see the shrunken heads at the Pitt Rivers Museum, what they are really seeing is a story of the white man’s gun“.

The tsantsas lost their spiritual value, which had always been connected with the circulation of power inside the tribe, and became a tool for accumulating riches. Ironically, the settlers contributed to the creation of those cruel and unscrupulous headhunters they always expected to find.

The Shuar by then were killing indiscriminately, and without any ritual support, just to obtain new heads. They began making fake tsantsas, using the remains of women, children, even Westerners – confident that someone would surely fall for the scam.
In the second half of the ‘800, the commerce of tsantsas flourished so much that even peoples who had nothing to do with Jivaros and their traditions, began fabricating their own shrunken heads: in Colombia and Panama unclaimed bodies were stolen from the morgue, their heads given to helpful taxidermists. In other cases the heads of monkeys or sloths, and other animal skins, were used to produce convincing fakes.
Today nearly 80% of the tsantsas held in museums worldwide is estimated to be fake.

The history of New Zealand’s mokomokai followed an almost identical script.
Unlike tsantsas, for the Maori people these heads were actually war trophies, captured during inter-tribal battles. The heads were not shrunk, but preserved with their skull still inside. Brain, eyes and tongue were gouged, nostrils and orifices sealed with fibers and gum; then the heads were buried in hot stones, in order to steam-cook them and dry them out. The mokomokai were meant to be exposed around the chief’s house.

In the second half of ‘700, naturalist Joseph Banks, sailing with James Cook, was the first European to acquire a similar head, after convincing an elderly man at a village to part from it – thanks to his eloquence, and to a musket pointed at the old man’s face. In all the following trips, Cook’s company spotted only a pair of mokomokai, a clue suggesting that these objects were in fact pretty uncommon.

Yet, after just fifty years, the commerce of heads in New Zealand had reached such intensity that many believed the Maori would be totally annihilated. Here too, the heads were traded for guns, in a spiral of violence that seriously threatened the indigenous population, particularly during the so-called Musket Wars.

Collectors were mainly attracted by the intricate tā moko (carved tattoos) which adorned the chiefs’ faces with elegant and sinuous spirals. So, Maori chiefs began tattooing their slaves just before beheading them – in some cases giving the Western buyer the option to choose a favorite head, while the unlucky owner was still alive; they tattoed heads that had already been cut, just to raise their price. The tā moko, a decorative art form of ancient origin, ended up been emptied of all meaning related to courage, honor or social status.
In New Zealand, even Europeans began to get killed, to have their heads tattoed and sold to their unsuspecting fellow countrymen: a fraud not devoid of a certain amount of  black humor.

Trading mokomokai was outlawed in 1831; the import of tsantas from South America was only banned from 1940.

So, in displays of ethnic artifacts in museums around the globe, in those darkened exotic heads, one is able to contemplate not only an ancient ritual object, packed with symbols and meanings: it is almost possible to glimpse at the very moment in which those meanings and symbols vanished forever.

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Tsantsas and mokomokai are difficult, controversial, problematic objects.
Among the visitors, it is easy to find someone who feels outraged by an indigenous practice which by today’s standards seems cruel; after reading this article, maybe some reader will be disgusted by the hypocrisy of Westerners, who were condemning the savage headhunters while coveting the heads, and looking forward to put them on display in their homes.
Either way, one feels indignant: as if this peculiar fascination did not really affect us… as if our entire western culture did not come from a very long tradition of heads cut off and exposed on poles, on city walls and in public places.
But the beheadings never stopped existing, just as the human head never ceased to be a very powerful and magnetic symbol, both shocking and irresistibly hypnotizing.

Most of the information in this article, as well as the inspiration for it, comes from the brilliant Severed by Frances Larson, a book on the cultural and antrhopological significance of severed heads.

Ladri di cadaveri

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La storia della medicina e dell’anatomia non è mai stata tutta rose e fiori, come avrete certamente scoperto se avete curiosato un po’ fra i nostri post. Nei secoli scorsi era in particolare la dissezione anatomica a sollevare le più furiose polemiche (paradossalmente spesso più di ordine morale che religioso, come abbiamo spiegato in questo articolo), perché la sua pratica interferiva con un’area sociale che gli antropologi definirebbero “tabù”, ossia il culto dei morti e del cadavere.

In Gran Bretagna, fin dal 1752, era in vigore una legge che consentiva la dissezione a fini medici unicamente sui cadaveri dei criminali condannati alla pena capitale. Ma il sapere scientifico all’epoca stava crescendo in fretta per importanza e scoperte, e velocemente si creavano le basi per quella che sarebbe divenuta la moderna medicina. Quindi, soltanto cinquant’anni dopo, la “scorta” di criminali giustiziati era troppo scarsa per riuscire a soddisfare la domanda di cadaveri delle Università e delle facoltà di anatomia.

Già nel 1810 venne creata in Inghilterra una società anatomica i cui membri avevano lo scopo di sollecitare presso il governo l’urgente modifica della legge; ma nel frattempo c’era chi aveva cominciato ad arrangiarsi in altro modo.

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Alcuni delinquenti compresero subito che i professori avrebbero pagato piuttosto bene per un cadavere fresco su cui eseguire una dissezione durante le loro lezioni, di fronte a un sempre crescente numero di studenti; così, attratti dalla possibilità di un facile guadagno, cominciarono un macabro commercio di salme.

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I body-snatchers (“ladri di corpi”) agivano di notte, dissotterrando morti sepolti di recente, e trasferendoli di nascosto nelle facoltà scientifiche; divennero presto una realtà diffusa soprattutto nella città di Edimburgo, dove aveva sede la più prestigiosa università di medicina, la Edinburgh Medical School. Sembra addirittura che alcuni cunicoli sotterranei collegassero i sobborghi più malfamati della Old Town con il Royal Mile, l’arteria principale dove aveva sede la scuola: in questo modo i body-snatchers, dopo aver sottratto i cadaveri dal cimitero, riuscivano a portarli indisturbati e nascosti fin sotto all’ingresso della Surgeon’s Hall.

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In breve tempo la situazione sfuggì di mano, e si diffuse la paranoia nei confronti dei cosiddetti resurrection men (“resuscitatori”, un altro nome dei ladri di cadaveri). C’era chi faceva la ronda tutta la notte attorno alle tombe fresche, e chi poteva permetterselo costruiva pesanti sarcofaghi di pietra; i più poveri si accontentavano di seppellire rami e bastoni attorno alla bara, per rendere la riesumazione più complessa e lunga.

Intorno al 1816 vennero inventati i mortsafes, enormi gabbie di ferro o pietra, di forme differenti. Spesso si trattava di complicate strutture in metallo pesante con sbarre e placche, assemblate con bulloni o saldature. I mortsafes si piantavano attorno alla bara, e potevano essere aperti soltanto da due persone armate di chiavi per i lucchetti. Venivano lasciate in posizione per sei settimane; quando il cadavere era rimasto sepolto sufficientemente a lungo per non fare più gola, venivano rimosse e riutilizzate.

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Ci si spinse oltre: la pistola cimiteriale veniva caricata e montata nei pressi di una tomba fresca. Il meccanismo le permetteva di girare su se stessa liberamente, e agli anelli venivano attaccati gli estremi di tre corde che venivano fatte passare attorno al luogo dell’inumazione; se un ladro, avvicinandosi nel buio, avesse inavvertitamente urtato una delle corde, la pistola si sarebbe girata nella sua direzione, facendo fuoco.

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Questo tipo di mercato clandestino si stava facendo davvero pericoloso. Alcuni ladri di cadaveri mandavano, durante il giorno, delle donne vestite a lutto, spesso con bambini in braccio, a controllare se fossero state installate pistole o altre difese nei pressi delle tombe; i guardiani del cimitero, a loro volta, avevano imparato ad aspettare l’arrivo del buio per montare questo tipo di armi. Insomma, in retrospettiva, non stupisce che prima o poi a qualcuno venisse l’idea di “saltare” il passaggio più problematico, quello del cimitero appunto, e di procurarsi i cadaveri in modo più diretto.

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Ad arrivarci per primi furono William Burke e William Hare che, con la complicità delle loro compagne, uccisero in meno di due anni 16 persone, rivendendo i loro corpi all’Università. Vennero scoperti e, una volta finito il processo nel 1829, Hare fu rilasciato, ma Burke finì impiccato; con esemplare contrappasso, il suo corpo venne dissezionato pubblicamente e ancora oggi potete ammirare presso il Museo del Surgeon’s Hall di Edimburgo il suo scheletro, la maschera mortuaria, e un libro rilegato con la sua pelle.

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Lo scalpore suscitato da questa vicenda, e il disgusto pubblico per il traffico di cadaveri, ebbero un impatto fondamentale per la promulgazione, nel 1832, dell’Anatomy Act; una legge che diede più libertà ai dottori e agli insegnanti di anatomia, permettendo loro di utilizzare per le dissezioni didattiche anche i corpi non reclamati, e incentivando la donazione spontanea con determinate forme di retribuzione (a chi decideva di “prestare” le spoglie di un parente stretto sarebbero state pagate le spese del funerale).

L’Anatomy Act si rivelò efficace nel porre fine al fenomeno dei body-snatchers, e la pratica del traffico di cadaveri per studio medico scomparì quasi istantaneamente.

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